Withania somnifera / Ashwagandha
Withania somnifera, known commonly as ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, poison gooseberry, or winter cherry, is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family. Several other species in the genus Withania are morphologically similar. Although thought to be useful as a medicinal herb in Ayurveda, there is no evidence it is safe or effective for treating any disease. Withania somnifera
This species is a short, tender perennial shrub growing 35-75 cm (14-30 in) tall. Tomentose branches extend radially from a central stem. Leaves are dull green, elliptic, usually up to 10-12 cm (4 to 5 in) long. The flowers are small, green and bell-shaped. The ripe fruit is orange-red.
The species name somnifera means "sleep-inducing" in Latin. The name, ashwagandha, is a combination of the Sanskrit words ashva, meaning horse, and gandha, meaning smell, reflecting that the root has a strong horse-like odor.
The main phytochemical constituents are withanolides - which are triterpene lactones - withanolides, withaferin A, alkaloids, steroidal lactones, tropine, and cuscohygrine. Some 40 withanolides, 12 alkaloids, and numerous sitoindosides have been isolated. Withanolides are structurally similar to the ginsenosides of Panax ginseng, leading to a common name for W. somnifera, "Indian ginseng".
The plant, particularly its root powder, has been used for centuries in traditional Indian medicine. Mainly due to the poor quality of clinical research, there is no high-quality evidence that it provides any medicinal benefit and may cause adverse effects if taken together with prescription drugs. Dietary supplements containing ashwagandha are marketed in the U.S., but there is no evidence they have any effect.
12 Proven Health Benefits of Ashwagandha
Ashwagandha is one of the most important herbs in Ayurveda, a form of alternative medicine based on Indian principles of natural healing. It has been used for over 3,000 years to relieve stress, increase energy levels, and improve concentration (1Trusted Source). Ashwagandha is Sanskrit for smell of the horse, which refers to both its unique smell and ability to increase strength. Its botanical name is Withania somnifera, and it's also known by several other names, including Indian ginseng and winter cherry. The ashwagandha plant is a small shrub with yellow flowers that's native to India and North Africa. Extracts or powder from the plant's root or leaves are used to treat a variety of conditions. Many of its health benefits are attributed to its high concentration of withanolides, which have been shown to fight inflammation and tumor growth (1Trusted Source). Summary Ashwagandha is a prominent herb in Indian Ayurvedic medicine and has become a popular supplement due to its health benefits.
In several studies, ashwagandha has been shown to lower blood sugar levels. One test-tube study found that it increased insulin secretion and improved insulin sensitivity in muscle cells (2Trusted Source). Also, several human studies have suggested that it can reduce blood sugar levels in both healthy people and those with diabetes (3, 4Trusted Source, 5Trusted Source, 6Trusted Source). Additionally, in a 4-week study in people with schizophrenia, those treated with ashwagandha had an average reduction in fasting blood sugar levels of 13.5 mg/dL, compared with 4.5 mg/dL in those who received a placebo (5Trusted Source). What's more, in a small study in 6 people with type 2 diabetes, supplementing with ashwagandha for 30 days lowered fasting blood sugar levels. However, the study didn't include a control group, making the results questionable (6Trusted Source). Summary Limited evidence suggests that ashwagandha reduces blood sugar levels through its effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity.
Animal and test-tube studies have found that withaferin - a compound in ashwagandha - helps induce apoptosis, which is the programmed death of cancer cells (7Trusted Source). It also impedes the growth of new cancer cells in several ways (7Trusted Source). First, withaferin is believed to promote the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside cancer cells, disrupting their function. Second, it may cause cancer cells to become less resistant to apoptosis (8Trusted Source). Animal studies suggest that it may help treat several types of cancer, including breast, lung, colon, brain, and ovarian cancer (9Trusted Source, 10Trusted Source, 11Trusted Source, 12Trusted Source, 13Trusted Source). In one study, mice with ovarian tumors treated with withaferin alone or in combination with an anti-cancer drug showed a 70-80% reduction in tumor growth. The treatment also prevented the spread of cancer to other organs (13Trusted Source). Although no evidence suggests that ashwagandha exerts similar effects in humans, the current research is encouraging. Summary Animal and test-tube studies have shown that withaferin, a bioactive compound in ashwagandha, promotes the death of tumor cells and may be effective against several types of cancer.
Cortisol is known as a stress hormone given that your adrenal glands release it in response to stress, as well as when your blood sugar levels get too low. Unfortunately, in some cases, cortisol levels may become chronically elevated, which can lead to high blood sugar levels and increased fat storage in the abdomen. Studies have shown that ashwagandha may help reduce cortisol levels (3, 14Trusted Source, 15Trusted Source). In one study in chronically stressed adults, those who supplemented with ashwagandha had significantly greater reductions in cortisol, compared with the control group. Those taking the highest dose experienced a 30% reduction, on average (3). Summary Ashwagandha supplements may help lower cortisol levels in chronically stressed individuals.
Ashwagandha is perhaps best known for its ability to reduce stress. Researchers have reported that it blocked the stress pathway in the brains of rats by regulating chemical signaling in the nervous system (16Trusted Source). Also, several controlled human studies have shown that it can reduce symptoms in people with stress and anxiety disorders (14Trusted Source, 17Trusted Source, 18Trusted Source). In a 60-day study in 64 people with chronic stress, those in the group that supplemented with ashwagandha reported a 69% reduction in anxiety and insomnia, on average, compared with 11% in the placebo group (14Trusted Source). In another 6-week study, 88% of people who took ashwagandha reported a reduction in anxiety, compared with 50% of those who took a placebo (18Trusted Source). Summary Ashwagandha has been shown to reduce stress and anxiety in both animal and human studies.
Although it hasn't been thoroughly studied, a few studies suggest ashwagandha may help alleviate depression (14Trusted Source, 18Trusted Source). In one controlled 60-day study in 64 stressed adults, those who took 600 mg of high-concentration ashwagandha extract per day reported a 79% reduction in severe depression, while the placebo group reported a 10% increase (14Trusted Source). However, only one of the participants in this study had a history of depression. For this reason, the relevance of the results is unclear. Summary The limited research available suggests that ashwagandha may help reduce depression.
Ashwagandha supplements may have powerful effects on testosterone levels and reproductive health (15Trusted Source, 19Trusted Source, 20Trusted Source, 21Trusted Source). In one study in 75 infertile men, the group treated with ashwagandha showed increased sperm count and motility. What's more, the treatment led to a significant increase in testosterone levels (21Trusted Source). The researchers also reported that the group who took the herb had increased antioxidant levels in their blood. In another study, men who received ashwagandha for stress experienced higher antioxidant levels and better sperm quality. After 3 months of treatment, 14% of the men's partners had become pregnant (15Trusted Source). Summary Ashwagandha helps increase testosterone levels and significantly boosts sperm quality and fertility in men.
Research has shown that ashwagandha may improve body composition and increase strength (4Trusted Source, 20Trusted Source, 22Trusted Source). In a study to determine a safe and effective dosage for ashwagandha, healthy men who took 750-1,250 mg of pulverized ashwagandha root per day gained muscle strength after 30 days (4Trusted Source). In another study, those who took ashwagandha had significantly greater gains in muscle strength and size. It also more than doubled their reductions in body fat percentage, compared with the placebo group (20Trusted Source). Summary Ashwagandha has been shown to increase muscle mass, reduce body fat, and increase strength in men.
Several animal studies have shown that ashwagandha helps decrease inflammation (23Trusted Source, 24Trusted Source, 25Trusted Source). Studies in humans have found that it increases the activity of natural killer cells, which are immune cells that fight infection and help you stay healthy (26Trusted Source, 27Trusted Source). It has also been shown to decrease markers of inflammation, such as Creactive protein (CRP). This marker is linked to an increased risk of heart disease. In one controlled study, the group who took 250 mg of standardized ashwagandha extract daily had a 36% decrease in CRP, on average, compared with a 6% decrease in the placebo group (3). Summary Ashwagandha has been shown to increase natural killer cell activity and decrease markers of inflammation.
In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, ashwagandha may help improve heart health by reducing cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Animal studies have found that it significantly decreases levels of these blood fats. One study in rats found that it lowered total cholesterol and triglyceride levels by 53% and nearly 45%, respectively (28Trusted Source). While controlled human studies have reported less dramatic results, they have observed some impressive improvements in these markers (3, 4Trusted Source, 5Trusted Source, 6Trusted Source). In a 60-day study in chronically stressed adults, the group taking the highest dosage of standardized ashwagandha extract experienced a 17% decrease in LDL (bad) cholesterol and an 11% decrease in triglycerides, on average (3). Summary Ashwagandha may help reduce the risk of heart disease by decreasing cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Test-tube and animal studies suggest that ashwagandha may mitigate memory and brain function problems caused by injury or disease (29Trusted Source, 30Trusted Source, 31Trusted Source, 32Trusted Source). Research has shown that it promotes antioxidant activity that protects nerve cells from harmful free radicals. In one study, rats with epilepsy that were treated with ashwagandha had nearly a complete reversal of spatial memory impairment. This was likely caused by a reduction in oxidative stress (32Trusted Source). Although ashwagandha has traditionally been used to boost memory in Ayurvedic medicine, only a small amount of human research has been conducted in this area. In one controlled study, healthy men who took 500 mg of standardized extract daily reported significant improvements in their reaction time and task performance, compared with men who received a placebo (33Trusted Source). Another 8-week study in 50 adults showed that taking 300 mg of ashwagandha root extract twice daily significantly improved general memory, task performance, and attention (34Trusted Source). Summary Ashwagandha supplements may improve brain function, memory, reaction time, and the ability to perform tasks.
Ashwagandha is a safe supplement for most people, although its long-term effects are unknown. However, certain individuals should not take it, including pregnant and breastfeeding women. People with autoimmune diseases should also avoid ashwagandha unless authorized by a healthcare provider. This includes people with conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and type 1 diabetes. Additionally, those on medication for thyroid disease should be careful when taking ashwagandha, as it may increase thyroid hormone levels in some people. It may also decrease blood sugar and blood pressure levels, so medication dosages may need to be adjusted if you take it. The recommended dosage of ashwagandha depends on the type of supplement. Extracts are more effective than crude ashwagandha root or leaf powder. Standardized root extract is commonly taken in 450-500-mg powder once or twice daily. With wate/ milk
Vitamins & Supplements
OTHER NAME(S): Ajagandha, Amangura, Amukkirag, Asan, Asana, Asgand...
Ashwagandha is a small evergreen shrub. It grows in India, the Middle East, and parts of Africa. The root and berry are used to make medicine.
Ashwagandha is commonly used for stress. It is also used as an "adaptogen" for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these other uses.
Don't confuse ashwagandha with Physalis alkekengi. Both are known as winter cherry. Also, don't confuse ashwagandha with blue cohosh, canaigre, codonopsis, ginseng American, ginseng panax, or eleuthero.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): There is no good evidence to support using ashwagandha for COVID-19. Follow healthy lifestyle choices and proven prevention methods instead.
How does it work?
Ashwagandha contains chemicals that might help calm the brain, reduce swelling (inflammation), lower blood pressure, and alter the immune system.
Uses & Effectiveness?
Possibly Effective for
Stress. Some research shows that taking a specific ashwagandha root extract (KSM66, Ixoreal Biomed) 300 mg twice daily after food or another specific extract (Shoden, Arjuna Natural Ltd.) 240 mg daily for 60 days appears to improve symptoms of stress.
Insufficient Evidence for
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of ashwagandha for these uses.